BEST Memorisation Techniques For Exams: The Secret Science Of How To Remember What You Study

BEST Memorisation Techniques For Exams: The Secret Science Of How To Remember What You Study

The Cambridge-educated memory psychologist & study coach on a mission to help YOU ace your exams. Helping half a million students in 175+ countries every year to study smarter, not harder. Supercharge your studies today with our time-saving, grade-boosting “genius” study tips sheet.

Pretty recently – the last decade or so – scientists have reached broad agreement that there is one memorisation technique for exams and tests that, above all others, will solve the age-old question of how to remember what you study.

Before I tell you what the technique is, I was shocked to learn that as few as 7% of college-level students (and possibly even fewer students at high school) say they are using this technique as their main revision strategy.

It seems counter-intuitive at first that trying to remember something helps you to learn it, but you’ll be astonished at how powerful this strategy can be for getting information locked away in memory, ready for when you need it.

What is “retrieval practice” and how can it help you to remember what you study?

When psychologists talk about “retrieving” something from memory, they mean recalling it, or remembering it. So “retrieval practice” just means practising remembering a piece of information you previously read, heard or saw.

A common misunderstanding – one I held myself for many years when studying for exams in high school – is that testing yourself on what you know only serves to “check” how much you know at that point, i.e. it won’t help you actually learn information.

A gigantic review of hundreds of studies testing how well various memorisation techniques prepared students for exams or tests concluded that, above all other techniques, retrieval practice (or “practice testing” as the review called it) was the most powerful.

I highly recommend you take a look at a guest post I’ve written for my friends at Titanium Tutors, where I explain a fascinating experiment that beautifully demonstrates how our intuitions often lead to us making bad decisions about how to revise – and what we can do about it.

Preparing For Success: Plan & Prioritise

1. How To Plan Your Studying: Have A Map

study effectively for exams

Once you’ve made your “map”, do a quick time budget for it. E.g. if there are 11 chapters to study, and you’ve got 25 days before the test, that’s 1 chapter every 2 days, with a couple of days in hand.

2. Look Ahead: Prepare For Success

Then when you go back and revise the topic, you’ll have a much deeper sense of what you need to know and why, and how you’ll end up applying it in the exam. That will help the topic “go in” much better – a bit like a farmer ploughing his field before sowing crops.

Perhaps some past student projects are available in the library, or your tutors have made some model essays available. The more you understand about what the assessors want to see, the easier it will be for you to deliver.

3. The Power Of No

(Though see also #37 about “having fun”. I’m a huge believer in scheduling some much-needed down-time each week, even if you’re working really hard – perhaps especially if you’re working really hard!)

4. Study Effectively With The Perfect Study Routine

Your study routine is quite a personal thing, so I can’t give you a one-size-fits-all template timetable that works for everyone. But if you don’t have a regular routine, take some time now to sketch out what an ideal study day might look like.

how to study effectively

  • When are your energy levels naturally highest? Do you do your best work in the first half of the morning? Just before lunch? Late afternoon? Schedule study blocks to take advantage of this “biological prime time” (as NY Times bestselling author and past Exam Study Expert guest Chris Bailey calls it)
  • Can you add in some regular spaced retrieval practice (see #12 / #13) – e.g. testing yourself on new material from the day first thing in the morning and last thing at night?
  • Leave time for YOU: if you’re ambitious, it’s tempting to cram as much work into each day as possible.
  • Start sure: if you’re new to your study routine, don’t aim for gold on Day 1. Set your sights conservatively, with a routine you know you can absolutely stick to even on low energy / low motivation days. If you feel you can do more, do more. But better to exceed your expectations than set yourself up for failure and discouragement.

5. Stay Consistent

Two students want to get into Cambridge. One spends a quarter of an hour a night reading around her subject, the other doesn’t. Six months later, one has lots of interesting things to say in her interview, the other doesn’t.

You’re probably getting my point by now, but one final example: two students are ambitious for exam success. One spends ten minutes a night memory journaling, the other doesn’t. Come the end of the year, one has a decent memory for lots of the course, and goes on to do really well in the exams.

Getting Productive: Building Superhuman Focus

6. One Thing At A Time: “Monotasking”

secret study tips

Even if you’re making an effort to ignore the ting or buzz every time someone messages you on Snapchat, WhatsApp or whatever, you’ll need an iron will to stop your mind wandering off to wonder what’s going on social media today.

7. Managing Internal Distractions

It’s normal for other thoughts to drift into your head when you sit down to work: worrying about other subjects, ideas or plans, things you need to do. But you aren’t in the right mindset to study effectively.

Keep a notepad to hand so you can write thoughts down and get them out of your head as soon as they occur. You can then come back to them later when you have time to give them the attention they need.

8. Take Quality Study Breaks

Pausing between study sessions is one of the best ways to keep your energy and focus up over the long haul so that you can remain effective. Studying is a marathon, not a sprint!

Best practice is to avoid turning on the TV, opening a phone game, checking messages / emails or doing anything else that will break your focus. Save these activities for a longer break.

9. The Pomodoro Technique

study efficiently

Creator of the technique Francesco Cirillo is incredibly specific about the specifics for using this technique in practice: for the full guide to the Pomodoro technique, see here. This includes my take on which bits of Francesco’s advice you should follow, and which you can be a bit more flexible on!

10. Study Effectively With The Perfect Study Environment

  • What resources do you need? This includes resources for your studies, like access to books, or somewhere comfortable to type.
  • What kind of vibe? Do you want library-reading-room silence or coffee-shop buzz? The solitude of your room or the camaraderie of a study room?
  • A space that improves your focus:
  • A space that helps your memory: “context-dependent recall” is a very well-studied psychological effect that offers a secret study advantage to students in the know. It basically says that if you do your learning in Environment A and later have to recall in Environment B, the more similar the two environments are, the easier it will be to recall! If you’re sitting your tests in a big exam hall, can you do at least some of your studying in a space that feels a bit like an exam hall – like a big, silent, intimidating university library reading room?
  • How can you make you personalise your space? Your space can give you motivation, offer you calm, and lift your spirits. See below for a few ideas!

11. Can I Listen To Music While Studying?

That partly depends on the choice of music. It’s a personal thing, but you’re more likely to be distracted by music that has lyrics, and / or is unfamiliar to you. You definitely won’t be studying effectively if you’re singing along!

The more cognitively demanding the task, the lower your threshold for being distracted by music. Music will rarely put you off your stride when folding laundry or filing. However, it might when you’re straining to get your head around a complex new calculus technique or marshal your research into an elegant multi-layered essay argument.

Resource:

https://examstudyexpert.com/memorisation-techniques-for-exams/
https://examstudyexpert.com/how-to-study-effectively/

Average Working Hours (Statistical Data 2021)

gdp per hour worked

Experts reveal the ideal number of hours you should work each week

The internet has made the line between work and home blurrier than ever, and it’s only getting worse. The classic 1817 refrain of “eight hours labor, eight hours recreation, eight hours rest” no longer holds up for everyone. Even the classic breakdown of week and weekend is falling by the wayside. There’s never been a better time to think seriously about how many hours you should actually be working each week — especially as burnout becomes a bigger issue among Millenials and the entire workforce.

The Swedish government tried cutting workdays to six hours to increase productivity, and it seemed to work. Some Singaporean companies purposefully end the workday at 3:30 pm so employees to enjoy cultural activities in the afternoon.

Inverse asked a sociologist, a management professor, and an economist for the inside scoop on the perfect workweek. Our reporting reveals an inconvenient truth: The ideal workweek might not exist.

Working hours by country

world annual work hours

Working hours in OECD countries

oecd average work week

oecd annual hours worked

Working hours in EU

On average, a full-time employee in the European Union works 37.1 hours per week (main job). In 2019, the longest working hours are reported in Romania (40.5 hours per week) and Bulgaria (40.4 hours per week). The statistics also show that in Belgium, the number of working hours for employees was 39.1 hours per week, while it was 52.8 for self-employed.

The data were gathered for all EU Member States and the United Kingdom, three EFTA countries (Iceland, Norway and Switzerland), and four candidate countries (Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia and Turkey).

By EU labor law,, working hours are limited to 48 hours per week, including overtime (if permitted by national law, you may have an agreement with a staff member to work beyond the 48-hour limit).

eu annual hours worked

Working hours in UK

uk annual hours worked

Working hours in Germany

germany annual hours worked

Working hours in US

For example, Europeans work up to 19 percent fewer hours annually compared to those working in the US. For Americans that’s 258 hours extra per year, or about an hour per working day.

usa annual hours worked

weekly hours in USA per industry

Annual working hours by city

annual hours cities

Weekdays and paid time-off by country

In most of the world, the workweek is from Monday to Friday, but not everywhere. For example, in muslim-majority countries, workweek is from Sunday to Thursday. Also, some countries work six days per week and some have a 4-day workweek.

workday weekend country

European countries establish legal rights to at least 20 days of paid vacation per year (some even go higher to 25 and even 30 or more days). Australia and New Zealand require employers to grant at least 20 vacation days per year, and Canada and Japan mandate at least 10 paid days off.

In addition to mandated paid annual leave, workers also get paid time off for public holidays. For instance, the US offers none, but most of the rest of the world’s rich countries offer at least 6 paid holidays per year (while some countries like Cambodia and Iran offer 27 paid holidays).

In the absence of government standards, 23 percent of Americans have no paid vacation and no paid holidays. According to government survey data, the average US worker receives only about 10 days of paid vacation and about 6 paid holidays per year – less than the minimum legal standard set in the rest of world’s rich economies

paid vacation time off

The pandemic complicated an already complex workload

If teachers were already noticing heavier workloads over the years, the pandemic exacerbated the challenge of not having enough time to get everything done within set work hours, teachers said.

Karen Lyon, a transitional kindergarten teacher at DeVargas Elementary School in San Jose, Calif., had to make her own lesson plans for remote instruction during the start of the pandemic, but also had to draft instructional guides for parents to be able to help their children learn at home.

Afia Lewis, a 6th grade math teacher at Ardmore Avenue Elementary School in Lansdowne, Pa., was overseeing younger students recently when a kindergartner pushed another student off a bench. When Lewis asked why she did that, the student said their peer “tried to share food and it’s COVID and it can make me sick so I just tried to get it away from me because I didn’t want to die.”

In another instance, Lewis was trying to teach an introduction to algebra. When she checked in with her students at the start of the class, one confided they were scared because of the fighting in Ukraine. The student didn’t know Ukraine is in Eastern Europe, and far from the United States. So the class briefly veered into a geography lesson and discussion of what the war means for the U.S.

Shifts between remote and in-person learning and the lack of substitutes to cover for teacher vacancies took away crucial hours needed for lesson planning, one of the things teachers wish they had more time for. And when teachers took time off for illness or other reasons, leaving another teacher to switch gears, it often led to feelings of guilt.

Support for teachers involves logistical changes

While teachers hope for more pay that fully takes into account the labor they perform each day and week, they argue that there are also strategies that can be put in place to help manage all the responsibilities that can’t be shrugged away.

Lyon from California once had access to support teachers in the district who would go to different schools to model lessons and share lesson plans and ideas for how to teach specific classes. That helped to shave time off teachers’ prep work in a collaborative way. But thanks to budget cuts, she said, that support and time for collaboration has ended.

The Lewis and Clark Montessori public school in Damascus, Ore., switched to a four-day school week this school year, said middle school teacher Caitlin Spanjer. So while the workload hasn’t gone down, it’s more manageable because of the time Spanjer has on Fridays to get it all done, including handling parent and professional development emails, lesson planning, and more.

In the five-day workweek, if Spanjer attends a six-hour professional-development training on a Saturday, her weekend is cut short without giving her time to either rest or catch up on work for the week ahead. In a four-day workweek, attending that training feels more manageable.

Source:

https://www.inverse.com/mind-body/how-many-hours-should-you-work-per-week
https://clockify.me/working-hours
https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/heres-how-many-hours-a-week-teachers-work/2022/04

What is Big Data – Characteristics, Types, Benefits & Examples

Abhinav is a Data Analyst at UpGrad. He’s an experienced Data Analyst with a demonstrated history of working in the higher education industry. Strong information technology professional skilled in Python,…

Lately the term ‘Big Data’ has been under the limelight, but not many people know what is big data. Businesses, governmental institutions, HCPs (Health Care Providers), and financial as well as academic institutions, are all leveraging the power of Big Data to enhance business prospects along with improved customer experience.

IBM maintains that businesses around the world generate nearly 2.5 quintillion bytes of data daily! Almost 90% of the global data has been produced in the last 2 years alone.
So we know for sure that Big Data has penetrated almost every industry today and is a dominant driving force behind the success of enterprises and organizations across the globe. But, at this point, it is important to know what is big data? Lets talk about big data, characteristics of big data, types of big data and a lot more.

What is Big Data? Gartner Definition

This definition clearly answers the “What is Big Data?” question – Big Data refers to complex and large data sets that have to be processed and analyzed to uncover valuable information that can benefit businesses and organizations.

However, there are certain basic tenets of Big Data that will make it even simpler to answer what is Big Data:

Structured

Structured is one of the types of big data and By structured data, we mean data that can be processed, stored, and retrieved in a fixed format. It refers to highly organized information that can be readily and seamlessly stored and accessed from a database by simple search engine algorithms. For instance, the employee table in a company database will be structured as the employee details, their job positions, their salaries, etc., will be present in an organized manner.

Unstructured

Unstructured data refers to the data that lacks any specific form or structure whatsoever. This makes it very difficult and time-consuming to process and analyze unstructured data. Email is an example of unstructured data. Structured and unstructured are two important types of big data.

Semi-structured

Semi structured is the third type of big data. Semi-structured data pertains to the data containing both the formats mentioned above, that is, structured and unstructured data. To be precise, it refers to the data that although has not been classified under a particular repository (database), yet contains vital information or tags that segregate individual elements within the data. Thus we come to the end of types of data. Lets discuss the characteristics of data.

Become a Big Data Engineer With IIITB.

Big data в мире

По данным компании IBS, к 2003 году мир накопил 5 эксабайтов данных (1 ЭБ = 1 млрд гигабайтов). К 2008 году этот объем вырос до 0,18 зеттабайта (1 ЗБ = 1024 эксабайта), к 2011 году — до 1,76 зеттабайта, к 2013 году — до 4,4 зеттабайта. В мае 2015 года глобальное количество данных превысило 6,5 зеттабайта (подробнее).

К 2020 году, по прогнозам, человечество сформирует 40-44 зеттабайтов информации. А к 2025 году вырастет в 10 раз, говорится в докладе The Data Age 2025, который был подготовлен аналитиками компании IDC. В докладе отмечается, что большую часть данных генерировать будут сами предприятия, а не обычные потребители.

Аналитики исследования считают, что данные станут жизненно-важным активом, а безопасность — критически важным фундаментом в жизни. Также авторы работы уверены, что технология изменит экономический ландшафт, а обычный пользователь будет коммуницировать с подключёнными устройствами около 4800 раз в день.

Big Data Analytics Tools

  • Ecommerce – Predicting customer trends and optimizing prices are a few of the ways e-commerce uses Big Data analytics
  • Marketing – Big Data analytics helps to drive high ROI marketing campaigns, which result in improved sales
  • Education – Used to develop new and improve existing courses based on market requirements
  • Healthcare – With the help of a patient’s medical history, Big Data analytics is used to predict how likely they are to have health issues
  • Media and entertainment – Used to understand the demand of shows, movies, songs, and more to deliver a personalized recommendation list to its users
  • Banking – Customer income and spending patterns help to predict the likelihood of choosing various banking offers, like loans and credit cards
  • Telecommunications – Used to forecast network capacity and improve customer experience
  • Government – Big Data analytics helps governments in law enforcement, among other things

1. What is big data in simple words?

2. What is the meaning of big data analytics?

3. Can I learn big data for free?

4. Is it worth it to learn big data?

5. Is coding required for big data?

6. Is big data a good career?

Resources:

https://www.upgrad.com/blog/what-is-big-data-types-characteristics-benefits-and-examples/
https://rb.ru/howto/chto-takoe-big-data/
https://www.simplilearn.com/what-is-big-data-analytics-article
Big data

Hampir setiap orang menggunakan yang namanya media sosial untuk mengakses berbagai informasi dan membagikan aktivitas keseharian pribadi. Tentunya, banyak yang mengupload foto, video maupun teks ke dalam aplikasi media sosial tersebut. Semua informasi tersebut merupakan jenis data yang akan terekam dan tersimpan dalam sistem basis data dengan kapasitas besar.

Big Data Trends in 2021 | The Future of Big Data

Pengenalan Big Data: Pengertian Fungsi, Manfaat, dan Tools

Big data saat ini sudah tidak asing lagi ditelinga pengembang perangkat lunak dengan skala proyek yang luas. Penggunaan basis data sangat diperlukan untuk dapat mengelola, menyimpan, memanajemen segala informasi yang berbentuk data secara terstruktur dan tersistem. Banyak perusahaan besar yang membutuhkan kapasitas data sangat besar untuk menyimpan data terkait perusahaan tersebut.

Untuk proyek dengan skala kecil, pada umumnya cukup dengan menggunakan bantuan database yang bersifat open source seperti MySQL, PostGre, MariaDB, dan lain – lain. Akan tetapi, untuk kebutuhan software yang menampung berbagai jenis data, maka dapat mengakibatkan proses penanganan data menjadi lambat dan kurang efektif. Langkah terbaik untuk menangani masalah tersebut adalah dengan menggunakan big data.

Pengertian Big Data

Big data adalah kumpulan proses yang terdiri volume data dalam jumlah besar yang terstruktur maupun tidak terstruktur dan digunakan untuk membantu kegiatan bisnis. Big data sendiri merupakan pengembangan dari sistem database pada umumnya. Yang membedakan disini adalah proses kecepatan, volume, dan jenis data yang tersedia lebih banyak dan bervariatif daripada DBMS (Database Management System) pada umumnya.

1. Volume

2. Velocity

Kecepatan transfer data juga sangat berpengaruh dalam proses pengiriman data dengan efektif dan stabil. Big data memiliki kecepatan yang memungkinkan untuk dapat diterima secara langsung (real-time). Kecepatan tertinggi yang bisa didapatkan langsung melalui aliran data ke memori apabila dibandingkan dengan yang ditulis pada sebuah disk.

3. Variety

Jenis variasi data yang dimiliki oleh big data lebih banyak daripada menggunakan sistem database SQL. Jenis data yang masih bersifat tradisional, lebih terstruktur daripada data yang belum terstruktur. Contohnya adalah teks, audio, dan video merupakan data yang belum terdefinisikan secara langsung dan harus melalui beberapa tahap untuk dapat diproses dalam sebuah database.

Selain dari 3V diatas, masih ada 2V lain yang merupakan bagian dari big data sendiri. Yaitu Value dan Veracity. Untuk value, merupakan nilai atau aliran data yang tidak teratur dan konsisten dalam beberapa kondisi dan periode. Hal tersebut dapat terjadi pada suatu kasus dimana terdapat lonjakan data yang besar sehingga, akan memproses data dengan resource memori yang lebih besar.

Veracity merupakan bentuk pembenaran suatu data. Jadi, mengacu pada kualitas data tersebut, dapat berasal dari berbagai sumber. Perlu adanya proses untuk menghubungkan dan mengkorelasikan beberapa hubungan data. Jika tidak ada relasi yang baik, maka dapat menimbulkan kontrol yang lepas kendali.

The growth of data fabric technology

Another important development that focuses on expanding the space available for digital transformation in an enterprise, data fabrics are progressively developing in the cloud and being adopted by organizations that need additional real estate and increased accessibility for their growing pools of big data.

Robert Eve, former senior data management strategist at TIBCO , a top-ranked data analytics and management platform, emphasizes the importance of data fabrics in organizations that crave both real-time analytics and data democratization:

“Data fabrics — modern distributed data architectures, provide enterprises with a competitive advantage that allows them to be most impactful with their data,” Eve said. “For example, it accelerates time to value by unlocking distributed on-premises, cloud, and hybrid cloud data — no matter where it resides — and delivering it at the pace of business. The technology also democratizes data access to arm business users with all the data they need to make faster and more accurate business decisions.

“In an ever-changing regulatory landscape, data fabrics allow enterprises to embrace new data and analytics technology advancements, while ensuring the right data is securely provided. It’s also nimble and allows for organizations to embrace new data and analytics technology advancements such as data science, real-time data, and the cloud faster to stay ahead of competition.”

Data fabric technology is also trending in the world of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) automation for big data, primarily because the distributed design discourages the data silos that make data annotation and machine learning more difficult.

Scott Gnau, VP of data platforms at InterSystems , a data analytics and integration company, describes this functionality in smart data fabrics, explaining that data fabrics are key to the data quality necessary for automation:

“The next generation of innovation and automation must be built on strong data foundations,” Gnau said. “Emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence and machine learning, require a large volume of current, clean, and accurate data from different business silos to function.

“Yet, seamless access across a global company’s multiple data silos is extremely difficult and with more and more data pouring in from disparate sources, organizations are in need of architectures that bring the composable stack and distributed data together for actionable real-time insights.

“Organizations of all sizes are turning to smart data fabrics as it presents one such reference architecture that provides the capabilities needed to discover, connect, integrate, transform, analyze, manage, utilize, and store data assets to enable the business to meet its myriad of business goals faster and with less complexity than previous approaches, such as data lakes.”

Ethical customer data collection

Much of the increase in big data over the years has come in the form of consumer data or data that is constantly connected to consumers while they use tech such as streaming devices, IoT devices, and social media.

Data regulations like GDPR require organizations to handle this personal data with care and compliance, but compliance becomes incredibly complicated when companies don’t know where their data is coming from or what sensitive data is stored in their systems. That’s why more companies are relying on software and best practices that emphasize ethical customer data collection.

It’s also important to note that many larger organizations that have historically collected and sold personal data are changing their approach, making consumer data less accessible and more expensive to purchase. Many smaller companies are now opting into first-party data sourcing, or collecting their own data, not only to ensure compliance with data laws and maintain data quality but also for cost savings.

“When something becomes more scarce, what happens to the price? That’s right, it goes up. So, as the next few years unfold, expect to see first party data be bigger than ever. That’s to say, if companies want data, they will likely have to collect it themselves.”

Applications of Big Data

Big Data for Financial Services

Big Data in Communications

Big Data for Retail

Healthcare

Travel

Gaming

Energy Management

Post Graduate Program in Data Analytics

Data has become the engine that drives almost all of today’s activities, no matter if they’re in the fields of healthcare, technology, education, research, or retail. Additionally, business orientation has evolved from a product-focused model to a data-focused one. Companies of all sizes value information, no matter how trivial that data may seem at first glance. Information analysis and visualization helps marketers and analysts acquire actionable business insights. This demand has created a need for experts who can pull useful, meaningful insights out of the terabytes of data available today.

While big data helps banking, retail, and other industries by supplying important technologies like fraud-detection and operational analysis systems, data analytics enables industries like banking, energy management, healthcare, travel, and transport develop new advancements by utilizing historical, and data-based trend analysis. Data science expands on that in more ways by enabling companies to explore new strategies in scientific discovery, medical advancements, web development, digital advertisements, ecommerce – literally, anything you can imagine.

What Does a Data Scientist, Big Data Professional and Data Analyst Do?

Data scientists work closely with business stakeholders to gain an understanding of their goals, and figure out how to use data to meet those goals. They are responsible for cleaning and organizing data, collecting data sets, mining data for patterns, refining algorithms, integrating and storing data, and building training sets.

As for Big Data professionals, well, the term “Big Data” is no longer a “big” thing when describing a career or job position. Big Data professionals are now known more as analytics professionals who review, analyze, and report on the massive amounts of data stored and maintained by the company. These professionals identify the challenges of Big Data and devise solutions, employ fundamental statistical techniques, improve the quality of data for reporting and analysis, and access, modify, and manipulate the data.

If it seems that the three occupations have a significant amount of overlap, that’s because they do! Each business has its own structure and procedures, and you are bound to see some blurring of the distinctions between these positions. Perhaps, in some companies, the data scientist wears multiple hats.

Resources:

https://www.sekawanmedia.co.id/blog/pengertian-big-data/
https://www.datamation.com/featured/big-data-trends/
https://www.simplilearn.com/data-science-vs-big-data-vs-data-analytics-article
Big data

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Why is big data analytics important?

Data is woven into the everyday fabric of our lives. With the rise of mobile, social media, and smart technologies associated with the Internet of Things (IoT), we now transmit more data than ever before—and at a dizzying speed. Thanks to big data analytics, organizations can now use that information to rapidly improve the way they work, think, and provide value to their customers. With the assistance of tools and applications, big data can help you gain insights, optimize operations, and predict future outcomes.

This ability to derive insights to inform better decision making is why big data is important. It’s how a retailer might hone their targeted ad campaigns, or how a wholesaler might resolve bottlenecks in the supply chain. It’s also how a health care provider might discover new options for clinical care based on patient data trends. Big data analytics enables a more holistic, data-driven approach to decision-making, in turn promoting growth, efficiency, and innovation.

How does big data analytics work?

Analytics solutions glean insights and predict outcomes by analyzing data sets. However, in order for the data to be successfully analyzed, it must first be stored, organized, and cleaned by a series of applications in an integrated, step-by-step preparation process:

  • Collect. The data, which comes in structured, semi-structured, and unstructured forms, is collected from multiple sources across web, mobile, and the cloud. It is then stored in a repository—a data lake or data warehouse—in preparation to be processed.
  • Process. During the processing phase, the stored data is verified, sorted, and filtered, which prepares it for further use and improves the performance of queries.
  • Scrub. After processing, the data is then scrubbed. Conflicts, redundancies, invalid or incomplete fields, and formatting errors within the data set are corrected and cleaned.
  • Analyze. The data is now ready to be analyzed. Analyzing big data is accomplished through tools and technologies such as data mining, AI, predictive analytics, machine learning, and statistical analysis, which help define and predict patterns and behaviors in the data.

กระบวนการทำงานของ Big Data

กระบวนการทำงานของ Big Data

1. จัดเก็บข้อมูล (Storage)

เป็นขั้นตอนการจัดเก็บรวบรวมข้อมูลทั้งหมดจากแหล่งต่างๆ ไม่ว่าจะเป็นข้อมูลที่มีคุณภาพรวมถึงข้อมูลที่คาดว่าอาจจะเป็นประโยชน์ ไม่ว่าจะเป็นข้อมูลที่เป็นตัวอักษร ไฟล์เอกสาร ไฟล์รูปภาพ ไฟล์วีดีโอ ไฟล์เสียงที่ถูกบันทึก จะถูกเก็บรวบรวมไว้ที่นี่

2. การประมวลผลข้อมูล (Processing)

การประมวลผลข้อมูล หลังจากที่นำข้อมูลมารวบรวมไว้ได้ในที่เดียวแล้ว ข้อมูลต่างๆ จะถูกนำไปจัดหมวดหมู่ให้อยู่ในกลุ่มที่มีความเกี่ยวข้องกันหรือความสัมพันธ์ใกล้เคียงกัน ให้ผลลัพธ์คล้ายคลึงกันมากที่สุด แล้วจึงนำมาเปลี่ยนเป็นรูปแบบข้อมูลเพื่อนำเอาข้อมูลที่มีอยู่เหล่านี้เข้าระบบข้อมูลที่ผ่านการประมวลผลแล้ว

3. การวิเคราะห์ข้อมูล (Analyst)

การวิเคราะห์ข้อมูลและนำเสนอข้อมูล หลังจากที่ข้อมูลทั้งหมดได้ถูกจัดกลุ่มและแยกประเภทเรียบร้อยแล้วนั้น ต่อจากนั้นจะนำมาวิเคราะห์หา Pattern ความเกี่ยวข้องกันทั้งหมด ที่อาจมองไม่เห็นได้เลยด้วยตา ไม่ว่าจะเป็นการหา แนวโน้มของการตลาด ความต้องการของลูกค้า กระแสที่อาจเกิดขึ้นได้ในอนาคต และข้อมูลด้านอื่นที่เป็นประโยชน์ และจัดมานำเสนอในรูปแบบต่างๆ ไม่ว่าจะเป็นรูปภาพหรือกราฟ

ประโยชน์ของการใช้ Big Data

  • สามารถเข้าใจลูกค้าได้มากยิ่งขึ้น ด้วยการนำฐานข้อมูลที่มีอยู่ใน Big Data ศึกษาถึงลักษณะพฤติกรรมของผู้บริโภคว่ามีการตัดสินใจในการเลือกสินค้าอย่างไร สามารถนำเสนอสินค้าที่คุณมีอยู่ให้ตรงกับความต้องการของลูกค้าได้หรือไม่ หากไม่มีจะสามารถนำสินค้าชนิดอื่นที่มีอยู่นำไปทดแทนได้หรือไม่
  • สามารถวิเคราะห์ความต้องการของตลาดในอนาคตได้ ข้อมูลต่างๆ ที่ถูกค้นหาในอินเตอร์เน็ต รวมถึงใน Social Media ต่างๆ สามารถนำมารวบรวมได้ ว่ามีอะไรที่ป็นกระแสหรือได้รับความนิยมอยู่ในขณะนั้น ว่ากระแสอะไรที่นำมาค้นหาหรือกล่าวถึงอยู่มากที่สุด ก็สามารถนำข้อมูลนั้นมาวิเคราะห์และวางแผนก่อน หากมีแผนที่ดีและสามารถทำได้อย่างรวดเร็วก็สามารถเป็นผู้นำกระแสได้อย่างไม่ยาก จากการใช้ข้อมูลจาก Big Data
  • การวางแผนในอนาคตมีประสิทธิภาพมากยิ่งขึ้น จากข้อมูลที่มีอยู่สามารถนำผลวิเคราะห์จาก Big Data เข้ามาช่วยประกอบการวางแผนและการตัดสินใจได้เป็นอย่างดี ทั้งในเรื่องของการลดต้นทุน เพิ่มผลผลิต โดยการเก็บข้อมูลต่างๆ ภายในองค์กรเพื่อนำไปวิเคราะห์ไม่ว่าจะเป็น กระบวนการผลิต ข้อมูลการใช้วัตถุดิบ จะทำให้สามารถทราบได้ว่าปัญหาภายในองค์กรมีหรือไม่ต้องปรับปรุงแก้ไขส่วนใด เพื่อที่จะสามารถแก้ไขปัญหาได้อย่างรวดเร็ว เพื่อป้องกันความผิดพลาดในการผลิต
  • คาดการณ์ปัญหาที่อาจเกิดขึ้น จากการนำข้อมูลที่มีจาก Big Data มาคาดการณ์ความต้องการของตลาด ซึ่งนอกจากคาดการณ์ในอนาคตได้แล้วนั้น ก็ยังสามารถนำข้อมูลส่วนนั้นมาวิเคราะห์ต่อยอดได้อีกว่า ในอนาคตนั้นจะมีเหตุการณ์อะไรที่สามารถเกิดขึ้นได้บ้าง ก็สามารถนำข้อมูลส่วนนั้นนำไปวางแผน ปรับนโยบาย วิธีการบริหารองค์กร เพื่อให้สามารถแก้ไขปัญหาได้อย่างรวดเร็วที่อาจเกิดขึ้นได้ในอนาคต
  • ลดงบประมาณในการลงทุนด้าน IT ในอนาคตหลังจากที่นำ Big Data มาใช้ในองค์กรแล้วสามารถลดต้นทุนการใช้งบประมาณในด้าน IT ได้เป็นอย่างดี เนื่องจากสามารถนำข้อมูลที่ได้มาไปใช้ประโยชน์ในด้านอื่นๆ ได้อีกพร้อมยังช่วยลดต้นทุนในการจ้างพนักงานในด้าน IT ได้อีกหลายตำแหน่งที่สามารถใช้ Big Data มาทดแทนได้

หลังจากที่เริ่มต้นใช้ Big Data เข้ามาใช้ในองค์กรแล้วแต่ด้วย Big Data อาจเป็นเทคโนโลยีใหม่ในองค์กร คนในองค์กรอาจจะยังเลือกใช้เทคโนโลยีในรุ่นเก่าที่คุ้นชินมากกว่า เข้ามาแก้ไขปัญหาทำให้การใช้เทคโนโลยี Big Data ในองค์กรไม่สำเร็จ

Các công nghệ đặc biệt dành cho Big data

Hệ sinh thái Hadoop

Thư viện phần mềm Hadoop là một khuôn mẫu cho phép xử lý phân tán các bộ dữ liệu lớn trên các nhóm máy tính sử dụng các mô hình lập trình đơn giản. Nó được thiết kế để mở rộng từ một máy chủ duy nhất sang hàng ngàn máy khác, mỗi máy cung cấp tính toán và lưu trữ cục bộ.

Apache Spark

Spark đã trở thành một trong những khuôn mẫu xử lý big data quan trọng, và có thể được triển khai theo nhiều cách khác nhau. Nó cung cấp các phương thức hỗ trợ đối với Java, Scala, Python (đặc biệt là Anaconda Python distro ), và ngôn ngữ lập trình R ( R đặc biệt phù hợp với big data ) và hỗ trợ SQL , streaming data, machine learning và xử lý đồ thị .

Data lakes

Các yếu tố giúp tăng trưởng data lakes là những phong trào kỹ thuật số và sự phát triển của IoT. Các data lakes được thiết kế để giúp người dùng dễ dàng truy cập vào một lượng lớn dữ liệu khi có nhu cầu.

NoSQL Databases

Nhưng chúng có những hạn chế như giản đồ cứng nhắc làm cho chúng không phù hợp với một số loại ứng dụng. Cơ sở dữ liệu NoSQL nêu ra những hạn chế, và lưu trữ và quản lý dữ liệu theo những cách cho phép tốc độ hoạt động cao và sự linh hoạt tuyệt vời.

Nhiều cơ sở dữ liệu đã được phát triển bởi các công ty để tìm cách tốt hơn để lưu trữ nội dung hoặc xử lý dữ liệu cho các trang web lớn. Không giống như các cơ sở dữ liệu SQL, nhiều cơ sở dữ liệu NoSQL có thể được mở rộng theo chiều ngang trên hàng trăm hoặc hàng ngàn máy chủ.

In-memory databases

Cơ sở dữ liệu trong bộ nhớ (IMDB) là một hệ thống quản lý cơ sở dữ liệu chủ yếu dựa vào bộ nhớ chính (Ram), thay vì HDD, để lưu trữ dữ liệu. Cơ sở dữ liệu trong bộ nhớ nhanh hơn các cơ sở dữ liệu được tối ưu hóa trong đĩa, một điểm quan trọng để sử dụng phân tích big data và tạo ra các kho dữ liệu và các siêu dữ liệu. Đọc thêm Redis là gì?

Resources:

https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/overview/what-is-big-data-analytics/
https://1stcraft.com/what-is-big-data/
https://topdev.vn/blog/big-data/

Easy Ways to Improve Your Writing Style

Much like the Pirate Code from the Pirates of the Caribbean, these are not so much rules as loose guidelines. When George Orwell wrote his famous essay on politics in the English language, he included a few rules of his own, including prohibitions against ‘dying metaphors’, wordiness and the aforementioned passive voice.

Improve my writing skills grammar crackers

Easy Ways to Improve Your Writing Style

It may seem unfair, but much of the time what you say doesn’t matter nearly so much as how you say it.

Think about a really good speech by a politician or motivational speaker. While they’re talking, everything sounds great – it’s compelling, it makes sense, you’re nodding in agreement, you’re standing up to cheer. Then half an hour later you’re telling a friend about what they said and it all starts to sound rather more like tired cliches and platitudes that fall flat when you’ve forgotten the precise nuances of phrasing that, when you first heard them, made you want to punch the air.
The magic is not in the content of what they’re saying, but in the style. And while learning to write in a stylistically brilliant way is a long, hard endeavour, there are a few very simple rules that you can follow to take your writing up to the next level.

Different types of writing and what they’re for

1. Creative writing

If you’d like to make your first forays into fiction, then there are few better places to begin than our Start Writing Fiction course by The Open University. On the course, you’ll learn not only the nuts and bolts of putting sentences together, but how to craft memorable characters and construct a plot that will keep readers gripped.

Our blog post on How to write a novel puts the emphasis on long-form writing – so head there for some specific tips. Composing a novel can feel like a never-ending task — but with the proper guidance, you’ll achieve the results you’re after!

If you’re going to be writing feature articles for websites and magazines, then you’ll need to hone skills that aren’t directly related to writing, including interviewing skills, and how to contend with ethical dilemmas. Our Feature Writing course from the University of Kent will help point you in the right direction.

Scriptwriting

Writing a script is distinct from other forms of creative writing, in that it pares everything down to simple stage directions and dialogue. To stand out, you’ll need a specialised skill set. Those interested in writing for film and television might consider An Introduction to Screenwriting. This course, from the University of East Anglia’s School of Literature, Drama and Creative Writing, will help you get that screenplay crafted, polished and ultimately sold.

Songwriting

Certain kinds of creative writing present particular challenges. If you’re writing for music, for example, then you’ll not only need to consider the words being sung but the musical arrangement around them. This applies whether you’re writing for a single person with an acoustic guitar, or an entire West End production.

2. Academic writing

This requires a slightly different approach to the kinds of writing we’ve talked about thus far. Most of the time, the aim is to get the ideas that reside in your head into the head of the reader, while minimising the potential for misunderstanding. Despite its reputation, academic writing should avoid unnecessarily long sentences or overwrought vocabulary.

If English isn’t your native language, then you might face particular challenges in crafting your academic writing. Academic Writing in English for ESL Learners is a course that will help to give ESL students the leg-up they need to succeed in English-speaking universities.

Essay writing

Doing this means taking into account the likely prejudices of your reader and anticipating them. It might mean presenting your ideas in a logical sequence so that they can be easily assimilated. Or you might deliberately present them out of sequence to shock the reader into continuing reading.

3. Business writing

When you’re writing for business reasons, your writing will be informed by an entirely different set of concerns. You’ll still be looking to express your ideas, but you’ll be doing it in an altogether different way.

Report writing

Writing a report well is something that’s vitally important for many professionals. Your ability to communicate your analysis of a given problem or situation might have incredibly broad ramifications for your career in general.

Email writing

Much of the time, the emails we write constitute the largest chunk of our writing for a given day. Crafting an email is an art form that’s worth perfecting. We often write emails under time constraints. Therefore, having an instinctive command of the language is extremely useful. You want to be thinking about the ideas you want to convey, not wrestling with how best to express them. Our course on Writing Better Emails will help to point you in the right direction.

Again, your audience should be considered. If you’re firing off a quick email to a colleague, then a little bit of informality is expected — and it might even be desirable. If you’re addressing a stranger and you wish to project an air of professionalism, then going for a formal tone might be preferable.

4. Copywriting

This style of writing involves persuading people. It’s synonymous with marketing and usually ends with a call to action (typically a suggestion that the reader buys something). It’s a close cousin of ‘content writing’, which involves conveying information to the reader rather than trying to persuade them.

5. Technical writing

Written with a knowledgeable audience in mind, you’re free to use terms that a general audience might not understand in technical writing. In many cases, using these terms allows for highly complex ideas to be handled much more quickly.

Remember Done Is Better than Perfect

No piece of writing will ever be perfect – you have to know when it’s time to let it go. This is especially important in content marketing, because you’ll rarely (if ever) have the luxury of crafting agonizingly beautiful blog posts full of poignant sentences and evocative imagery. As you become more confident, the “writing” part of writing will become easier and faster, but never lose sight of the fact that deadlines, or editorial calendars, are just as much your masters as any boss or manager.

Summary: How to Improve Your Writing Skills

  1. Brush up on the basic principles of writing, grammar and spelling.
  2. Write like it’s your job and practice regularly.
  3. Read more so you develop an eye for what effective writing looks like.
  4. Find a partner. Ask them to read your writing and provide feedback.
  5. Join a workshop, meetup, or take a writing night class.
  6. Take the time to analyze writing you admire.
  7. Imitate writers you admire.
  8. Outline your writing.
  9. Edit your writing.
  10. Accept that first drafts are often bad and revise.
  11. Find an editor who demonstrates patience.
  12. Eliminate unnecessary words from your writing.
  13. Review your earlier work and see how you’ve grown.
  14. Don’t be afraid to say what you mean in what you write.
  15. Make sure you do adequate research on your topic.
  16. Don’t delay writing. Get it done now.

Dan Shewan

Meet The Author

Dan Shewan

Originally from the U.K., Dan Shewan is a journalist and web content specialist who now lives and writes in New England. Dan’s work has appeared in a wide range of publications in print and online, including The Guardian, The Daily Beast, Pacific Standard magazine, The Independent, McSweeney’s Internet Tendency, and many other outlets.

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24 Unusual (Yet Brilliant) Call to Action Examples You Can Copy

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Sources:

https://www.oxford-royale.com/articles/8-easy-ways-to-improve-your-writing-style/
https://www.futurelearn.com/info/blog/how-to-improve-your-writing-skills
https://www.wordstream.com/blog/ws/2014/08/07/improve-writing-skills

Time management skills that improve student learning

He had something of an epiphany after considering that we are all going to die, and it transformed his time management philosophy. He now wakes daily at 9am after a nine-hour sleep, works for four hours per day, and goes to the gym and reads daily. He uses several time management strategies, including to-do lists, calendars and timers, but not to stuff his life with work. Rather, he says, these tools “should allow you to take control of your life, and then structure your work around it”.

Time management skills that improve student learning

Time management skills that improve student learning

In today’s busy world, time management skills for students are increasingly important. While you might be yearning for a simpler era when time seemed to move more slowly, the realities of participation in contemporary western society requires young people to have skills in efficiency and productivity.

While ACC does not advocate for an obsessive, micro-managing approach to a student’s daily life, we do believe it’s important for them to set goals and learn to be effective time managers. In this article, we’ll discuss why time management matters, and list several techniques to help students learn to prioritise and manage time effectively.

What is Time Management?

Each one of us has 24 hours a day and how we spend it completely depends on us. As the term suggests, time management is organizing your time and making the most of your daily routine. It is the ability to use each hour effectively. Managing time not only makes us complete our work but also give us ample time for ourselves. People can work smarter when they learn to manage their time effectively. However, each human is wired uniquely different. Hence, it is important to know that each one of our schedules might depend on several intrinsic factors and can be influenced by multiple external factors.

While some people find it difficult to manage their time, others manage their time better because they have certain skills. Time management requires habituating oneself to a disciplined schedule. Here are a few time management skills you can inculcate in your daily routine.

“Once you have mastered time, you will understand how true it is that most people overestimate what they can accomplish in a year – and underestimate what they can achieve in a decade!” — Tony Robbins

Time management tips for students

1. Define and prioritize your tasks

Before setting aside any time to get your work done, you have to narrow down what you need to get done and arrange it in order of importance. Create a checklist of everything you need to get done, such as assignments, projects, study groups, etc., and add in their deadlines. This will help you arrange them in order of importance. If the list seems long, try grouping similar tasks together so you can get them done at the same time. After completing them, you can cross them off the list to help you keep track of what you have done and make sure nothing’s forgotten.

2. Break down tasks into smaller tasks

You can easily get overwhelmed if you have to tackle a massive project at once. If you have to write and turn in a 20-page report, you can get overwhelmed doing it all at once. However, if you do two pages a day, you will be done in about ten days. The thought of working on a 2-page report is less intimidating than working on 20 pages.

3. Have a master schedule

Creating a master schedule can help you quickly pencil in essential tasks and anything else you need to get done. A master schedule can serve as a template to create other timetables or an overall schedule to have all your tasks listed. A master schedule can be anything for scheduling tasks in time blocks to detailing them in a more elaborate time table.

4. Reward yourself

Getting through a to-do list is no easy task. Effectively managing time is a habit that needs to be nurtured, and rewards can reinforce this habit. Celebrations are fun, so whenever you complete a task, celebrate the win, whether big or small. It will assist you in establishing a routine that will eventually turn into a habit.

5. Be realistic and flexible

As a student, you can’t dedicate 24 hours to studying; you need to get other things done. There’s class, extracurriculars, sleep, etc. find out how much free time you have. Once you do, you can allocate time for the activities you have to complete. This is where working smarter comes in. You want to utilize your time well. However, keep in mind that tasks often take longer than you expect, so allocate a bit more time if you end up spending more time than you thought you would on a job.

Despite how important time management is, it is not taught in class as a subject. However, it is the first step towards success. Now that you know the importance of time management, you can easily apply the tips listed above to effectively manage your time in school and make the most of every day.

Sources:

https://www.acc.edu.au/blog/time-management-skills-student-learning/
https://leverageedu.com/blog/time-management-for-students/
https://tokyo.globalindianschool.org/blog/importance-of-time-management-to-students

SMART Goals Examples for Improving Your Writing Skills

Having these baby steps set and planned out will help you stay on track and free you from the pressure of constantly wondering when you’ll have time to write.

SMART Goals Examples for Improving Your Writing Skills

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Good writing skills are becoming more critical, particularly in finding and maintaining a good job. As a writer, you are faced with several challenges. This has to do with your overall writing skills, not just with the profession in general.

A lack of vocabulary, issues with plagiarism, insufficient reasoning and cognitive skills, a lack of feedback, poor grammar and spelling, and a lack of research skills are problems you may face.

However, setting SMART goals is one thing that can help you significantly improve your writing skills. This article discusses SMART goals for writing skills.

Set Deadlines

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Even if you do not have any required writing deadlines, set them anyway. Deadlines motivate you to finish something—anything—and the challenge will push you to get something done instead of procrastinating.

As mentioned above, set a deadline for each day to write so many words. This smaller baby deadline will help you reach your greater deadline of writing a whole book… if that is your goal.

Use an Editorial Calendar or a Planner

By using a calendar or a planner, you can break your writing goals down into weekly and daily goals. Prioritize them per day as needed, and remember to keep your writing goals and deadlines SMART.

Objectives to support IEP Writing Goals

  1. Write the main idea with some supporting details on a topic.
  2. Research and write to convey understanding of a topic using at least one resource.
  3. Write clear, focused main ideas and supporting details on a topic.
  4. Write a multi-paragraph passage to develop a topic using details, examples, and illustrations.
  5. Revise writing for the development of the main idea with supporting details.
  6. Research using verifiable sources to develop and support the topic.
  7. Research and write to convey a thorough understanding of a topic using two or more resources.
  8. Include some relevant facts and details on a chosen topic.
  9. Convey clear, focused main ideas and supporting details on a topic for a variety of audiences and purposes.
  10. Include appropriate facts and details on a chosen topic.
  11. Use writing to generate a learning log and journals to record new information.
  12. Use writing to generate diagrams, learning logs, journals, note-taking, outlines, and summaries.
  13. Write the main idea with some supporting details on a topic.
  14. Research and write to convey understanding of a topic using at least one resource.
  15. Write clear, focused main ideas and supporting details on a topic.
  16. Write a multi-paragraph passage to develop a topic using details, examples, and illustrations.
  17. Revise writing for the development of the main idea with supporting details.
  18. Research using verifiable sources to develop and support the topic.
  19. Research and write to convey a thorough understanding of a topic using two or more resources.
  20. Include some relevant facts and details on a chosen topic.
  21. Convey clear, focused main ideas and supporting details on a topic for a variety of audiences and purposes.
  22. Include appropriate facts and details on a chosen topic.
  23. Use writing to generate a learning log and journals to record new information.
  24. Use writing to generate diagrams, learning logs, journals, note-taking, outlines, and summaries.
  25. Organize writing to address audience and purpose in chronological and logical sequences (e.g., sequence, place, importance).
  26. Write a sentence that connects related ideas that maintain a topic.
  27. Research using verifiable sources to develop and support a topic.
  28. Write stories with a beginning, middle, and end.
  29. Demonstrate organization by developing a beginning, middle, and ending using some transition words (e.g., first, next, then).
  30. Demonstrate organization by developing an introduction, body of text and conclusion with clear sequencing of ideas and use of transitional words and phrases.
  31. Select appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., outlining, identifying, and supporting topic, following a model, maps, and charts).
  32. Organize paragraphs when writing from a prompt or on a topic.
  33. Use paragraphs to organize structure within the text for a specific purpose of the content.
  34. Write paragraphs in which sentences are related to the topic.
  35. Write paragraphs containing a stated main idea and a closing sentence.
  36. Write multi-paragraph passages (e.g., stories, reports).
  37. Revise writing by adding or deleting text.
  38. Change some text to improve clarity.
  39. Revise writing to improve clarity and effectiveness by adding relevant details and changing or rearranging text.
  40. Edit writing to organize sentences into paragraphs.
  41. Edit writing to use transitional words and phrases to connect ideas in sentences and paragraphs (e.g., therefore, on the other hand).
  42. Revise writing so it has a sequence (e.g., beginning, middle, end).
  43. Revise writing so the paper has an order that makes sense, including details, ideas sentences, time sequence, and paragraphs.
  44. Classify words and topics into an organizational scheme.

Proven Ways to Achieve Your Writing Goals

1. Set your daily minimum writing target.

For example, you might think that it makes more sense to set a goal of at least 1,000 words a day, but then you hit a low point, you feel overwhelmed, and you barely have ten minutes to give to writing before you have to run out the door again or before you collapse into bed.

So, you think, “Well, it’s not even worth it” and skip writing for the day. And once you give yourself permission to skip one day, it gets easier to skip others.

2. Plan and schedule each writing project (book, blog post, article, etc.).

For instance, you might find it takes about a month to write a 25,000-word nonfiction book, another three weeks to revise it, and an additional week for a final edit.

woman typing on a laptop writing goals

Once you have an idea of roughly how long it’ll take to write a book and get it ready for publication, you can set your publication deadline on your calendar.

And once you have it on the calendar, you can tell others about it — including an accountability partner, who’ll check on your progress and help you stay on track.

Once you break down a larger project (a book, novel, screenplay, etc.) into smaller parts — and you have a fair understanding of how long it will take you to finish each part — you’ll be better able to schedule the entire project.

3. Set milestones for each larger project, and celebrate your progress.

4. Use time blocks for your daily writing commitment.

If you keep a record of these details, you’ll be able to review them later and see what details contributed to a higher word count and which ones slowed you down.

5. Make time for self-education.

When you read effective writing examples in your genre, you learn how to improve your writing, which increases the likelihood that your readers will not only finish your book but leave a positive review for it.

5th grade writing IEP goals

Use key details to determine the main idea IEP Goal

By (date), when given a list of 3 key detail sentences from a paragraph about the same topic, the student will choose the main idea that ties all the details together, improving reading strategies skills from 0/10 work samples out of ten consecutive trials to 8/10 work samples in ten consecutive trials.

Put the sentences in order IEP Goal

By (date), when given a paragraph in sentence strip form, the student will put the sentences in order, improving writing strategies skills from 0/10 work samples out of ten consecutive trials to 8/10 work samples in ten consecutive trials.

Organize information by main idea IEP Goal

By (date), when given a sample report topic and a list of topic detail sentences (graphic organizer with sentence strips), the student will organize information by main ideas (ie. a report on Europe, geography vs languages), improving writing strategies skills from 0/10 work samples out of ten consecutive trials to 8/10 work samples in ten consecutive trials.

Choose the best topic sentence IEP Goal

By (date), when given a short paragraph (missing topic sentence) and 3 sample topic sentences, the student will choose the best topic sentence, improving writing strategies skills from 0/10 work samples out of ten consecutive trials to 8/10 work samples in ten consecutive trials.

Teacher Tip: When developing IEP goals for your children, don’t forget to take into account the value of a writing rubric for each writing assignment. It’s how all writing objectives can be assessed and tracked over time. Have the students create writing samples often and on many different subjects.

The list of IEP goals is not intended to be a comprehensive guide for all writing instruction, writing assignments, or in support of proper essay structure, but it will get you started in coming up with ideas for how to improve your teaching and meet the needs of your learners.

References:

https://www.developgoodhabits.com/smart-goals-writing-skills/
https://www.blogsuccessjournal.com/best-writing-goals/
https://adayinourshoes.com/7-measurable-iep-goals-for-writing-skills/
https://authority.pub/writing-goals/
https://www.theteacherdollarstore.com/post/15-measurable-iep-goals-and-objectives-for-writing-and-written-expression

How Reliable Are The Academic Essay Writing Services?

academic essay writing services

Why You Should Use Professional academic essay writing services? It is so easy! Check out these frequently asked questions about essay writing which will help you understand how academic essay writing services really work.

How to Find a Good Academic Essay Writing Service? When looking for an academic essay writing service, you should always ask for samples. Look for writers who are experts at academic writing. Look for people who have experience in writing academic articles or dissertations.

Are There Really Professional Academic Essay Writing Services? Most academic essay writing services provide hundreds of articles, research papers or dissertations as well as technical manuals. But these writers are not writers but ghostwriters. They are professionals who know how to write the right words in the right order. Their expertise comes from years of experience.

Can I Order Paperwork Online? Yes, you can order your essays, research papers and dissertations through an academic essay writing services company. These companies also send their writers to your school to complete your assignment. So there is no need for you to buy extra books or supplies every time you need to submit an assignment.

Will Some Ghostwriters Really Write My Papers? Of course not! Each service has a team of expert writers. Each writer is familiar with his or her area of specialization so it is easier for the service to suggest possible topics and ideas for your assignment.

Do The Writers Review My Work Before Submitting It? Of course they do! The best professional academic writing services will submit your work to you for review before submitting it to you. You have probably heard the saying “it’s better to see it done right than to do it right.” This is especially true in this case.

How Helpful Are Customer Service Reviews? Did you know that most professional writers now offer a free trial before sending you the completed project? If you like what you read (and approve) then you can sign up for the writer’s service. After you’ve signed up, you’ll receive a link to their site where you can read reviews of your assignment and get suggestions about how to improve it. Usually the customer service department is staffed with knowledgeable writers who are happy to help you.

Are Some Academic Essay Writing Services Limited To British And American Universities Only? Although I haven’t used these services for all my academic writing assignments, I know many students like them because they specialize in a specific topic. Some companies only accept papers from American and British universities. If you’re an American student, there’s no reason why you can’t use an essaypro service since those papers are readily available on the Internet. However, if you’re from Canada, you may have to wait a while until a Canadian academic paper writing service becomes available in your university.

What Is The Guarantee On Professional Paper Writing Services? A writer from one of the top essay writing services will guarantee you a successful academic level project. The best ones will have proofreading and editing teams who work alongside writers to ensure that your academic essay is completely error free. Each writer will have a different approach to proofreading and editing your paper. Some writers will make sure that every aspect of your essay is proofread and edited, while others won’t touch certain passages.

Where Can I Find The Best Available Academic Level Writing Services? The best available essay providers will have writers in different cities across the US and in various academic fields. There are professional writers in the academic world specializing in different areas like personal essays, dissertations, papers for essays and even term papers. You’ll want to choose a writer with experience in your field of study. Also, it’s always advisable to choose writers who specialize in your area of study.

What Are Some Of The Expertise Adam Huler Reviews? This experienced service, which uses a team of editors, copy editors and writers has received numerous prestigious awards including the Phi Beta Sigma Award. The Review is read by college and university deans, department chairs and even used by other professional writers. The writers who work for this service make sure their academic papers are error free, they are unique, creative and always make effective use of technical grammar and language.

How Many Students Read The Reviews? Many students find that they often rely on the written reviews instead of relying solely on their personal writing. The writers for this service are read by many students because of their experience in academic papers, the content, style, tone and organization.

how many years in secondary school

how many years in secondary school

Primary and secondary system
Compulsory schooling in Norway is ten years and children start school at the age of six. Everyone between the ages of 16 and 19 has had a statutory right to three years’ upper secondary education leading either to higher education, or to vocational qualifications or partial qualifications.
Norway has a uniform upper secondary school, combining general theoretical education and vocational training and giving equal status to practical and theoretical education. General theoretical education and vocational training are offered side by side, often in the same school building. During the first year, students take one of 15 foundation courses. Specialised courses are offered in the second and third year (advanced courses I and II) and in apprenticeships.

Applying for your child’s primary school place is an exciting and sometimes daunting time. Find out everything you need to know about schools and applications in Newham.
Find out the latest coronavirus information on schools and education

References:

http://www.newham.gov.uk/schools-education
http://www.goodschoolsguide.co.uk/special-educational-needs/behavioural/pathological-demand-avoidance

key stages in education

key stages in education

Age 3–5. Y0. Nursery / Reception (Early Years Foundation Stage)
The UK Key Stages are targets to be achieved in various subject areas as set out in the UK National Curriculum.

Key stages in education
Key Stage 1 (primary school Years 3 and 4) builds on Foundation Stage experiences, and Key Stage 2 (primary school Years 5, 6 and 7) builds on Key Stage 1 experiences. As children progress through these stages, they move from informal to more formal learning.
The Northern Ireland Curriculum aims to empower young people to achieve their potential and to make informed and responsible decisions throughout their lives. The learning opportunities provided should help young people to develop as individuals, contributors to society and contributors to the economy and environment.

References:

http://ccea.org.uk/key-stages-1-2
http://www.summerhillschool.co.uk/

secondary school in england

secondary school in england

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For our younger students,we aim to instil a sense of an inclusive community and a passion for learning.
Time to learn, play and explore

References:

http://www.icschool.co.uk/
http://safesupportivelearning.ed.gov/training-technical-assistance/education-level