Physiological and Psychological Effects of Anabolic Steroids

The desire to win sometimes takes over the morality of a sportsperson, making them take the risk of being caught. It has been proven in innumerable studies that, in the long run, AAS use and abuse causes extensive physiological and psychological damage, not limited to the reproductive, endocrinal, digestive and circulatory systems.

Physiological Effects

The liver is the most affected due to steroid abuse due to inability to get alkalised if taken orally and due to direct entry into the bloodstream in aces of injection. The effects are more jarring in adolescents and thus young players must be stopped from getting addicted.

The most typical cardiac abnormality in AAS abusers is left ventricular hypertrophy, associated with fibrosis and myocytolysis. Users of steroid, when compared to nonusers, in the long term, have been found to have twice the probability for a cardiovascular issue leading to death, infertility issues due to nuroendocrinological imbalance and increased chances of brain damage.

Another facet of abuse is increased risk of tearing of the tendons, due to reduced collagen production and this affects normal skeletal movement. Extensive acne is reported as a common side effect across studies.

Long term use, though initially causes high libido, has been linked to impotency due to high levels of testosterone limiting natural sperm production. Some players report heightened aggressiveness, diminished fatigue and speedy recovery of damaged muscles. Probably the most apparent change in a female athlete is the masculinization of features.

Injection users usually oversee the risk of infection due to shared or non-sterile devices and poor methods and are thus susceptible to disease like HIV and Hepatitis.

Psychological Effects

There is not much difference between AAS users and non users with respect to response speed, sustained attention, and verbal memory but research has \confirmed extensive damage to memory, especially to the part of the brain dealing with Visio spatial memory.

There are extensive mood swings, increased aggression, reduced sleep, increased self-motivation, oscillating with higher anxiety and depression. At least 20% of the abusers had sought medical help for mental problems.

Major research study on AAS

The period from 60s to 90s saw a lot of controversy on the physiological and psychological effects of steroids on the human body. A lot of what we know on the effect of steroids comes from the work of Shalender Bhasin, whose path breaking experiment of 1996 is cited by Griffiths, Murray, Mitchison, & Mond. The paper was published in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine and detailed a study of 43 men divided into groups and administered with varying amounts of steroids, with all other factors being constant, for a span of 10 weeks. He found that a weekly dose of 600 gm of Testosterone Enanthate caused hypertrophy of the skeletal muscles and weight gain of over 6 kilograms with exercise and 3 kilograms without exercise, during the study period. His study also found no saturation limit found for the said weight gain and that all of the 3 and 6 kilograms mentioned above was put on within the last 6 to 7 weeks of the study alone.

The reason of inaccurate results is due to the fact that there are many variables affecting the muscle strength of a player like diet, performance anxiety and genetics. It is very important that more research on the negative impact of steroids is conducted and all information thereof is made available to the public. It is required that the new generation of sportsmen and students stay away from these drugs and putting their lives in peril. 

Anabolic Steroids (AAS) in Sports

The quest for performance enhancing drugs has been there since many centuries with many old civilisations each having their own version of substances they considered improved stamina, built or both. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) are any synthetic or naturally occurring chemicals that introduce and/or modify the molecular structure of testosterone and enhancing the body’s muscle building. Unfortunately due to this characteristic, these drugs are being used, and in most cases abused, by users, mostly in the field of sports and media, especially with athletes and weight lifting professionals.

The most common reason one hears for the use of anabolic steroids is to quickly put on mass and muscle and to improve strength and physical looks. However, research abounds on the detrimental effects of steroid use in the long run, including masculinities in women and gynocomastia in men and even reduced life expectancy in both genders.

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) defines doping as the “use of endogenous or exogenous substances in abnormal amounts intended to increase the performance of athletes in competition”. The rule was passed in 1964 and athletes were tested starting 1968. Anabolic steroids are very much part of this list along with other substances like narcotics, peptide hormones and other stimulants and are therefore prohibited for use by sportsmen.

The first case of doping and abuse of steroids was reported in 1950 with Russian athletes and the first documented fatality as a result of doping was during the 1960 Olympics. The IOC banned doping in 1964 and adopted testing from 1967. However, reports of medicines being used to work around the tests were found in 1970 and a more stringent test was initiated in 1976 Olympics. 1988 saw Ben Johnson become the first Olympic gold medal winner in track and field to be stripped of his medal after testing positive for AAS, followed by Marion Jones, being stripped of 5 gold medals. The most recent case is that of Lance Armstrong, who in 2013, was stripped of all seven Tour de France titles won from 1999, given a lifetime ban by the International Cycling Union and later being tripped of Olympic bronze medal from the 2000 Sydney Games.

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), requires all sportsmen to adhere to a revised code against use of prohibited substances and has five standards – testing, laboratories, exceptions for medical use, list of prohibited substances and confidentiality of information. Anyone thus found using AAS is said to have violated the code.

The biochemistry of steroids

Steroids are essentially lipids and are produced by various organs in the human body from cholesterol. The three essential types of steroids in the body are – androgens or male hormones, oestrogen or female hormones and cortisone, a hormone produced by both sexes to control critical bodily functions, including cardiovascular and skeletal muscles. The two main types of synthetic steroids include corticosteroids, variants of cortisone, used for treatment of conditions like asthma and AAS, variants of testosterone with very little true medical use.

The most common method of administering steroids is orally or through intramuscular injections, though commercially, skin attachments and sprays are also available. It depends on the synthesis of the drug and the manner in which the testosterone molecule has been modified. When used, testosterone molecules enter the cell and attach themselves to a testosterone receptor and move to penetrate the nucleus where they bind to specific portions of the DNA to release RNam. They then detach themselves and become inactive. Since the upper half of the human body has significantly more number of such receptors for the steroid to attach to, there is better muscle accumulation in the torso due to the drug.

Three is also a practice of ‘stacking’, using multiple variants simultaneously based on their different effects and ‘cycling’, wherein the process is put through a cycle of a few weeks.

what is secondary education in uk

what is secondary education in uk

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What is secondary education in uk
In this text you will find general information on the education system in the UK. As there are separate education systems in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the actual ages etc. might vary a little.
School in the UK is compulsory between the ages of five and sixteen. Children younger than five can go to a toddler group (accompanied by a parent), playgroup or nursery school.

Most LEAs aimed to establish the three main ‘streams’ or categories of school – grammar, secondary modern and technical – which had been recommended in a Report by Sir William Spens in 1938. Children would be allocated on the basis of an examination at the age of 11, known as the ’11 plus’. This was intended to provide equal opportunities for children of all backgrounds.
The Education Act of 1944 was steered through Parliament by the Education Minister, R.A. Butler, and was followed by a similar Act for Scotland in 1945. The Act provided free secondary education for all pupils.

References:

http://www.goodschoolsguide.co.uk/international/uk/the-uk-school-system
http://www.ego4u.com/en/read-on/countries/uk/school
http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/transformingsociety/livinglearning/school/overview/educationact1944/
http://www.britannica.com/topic/comprehensive-school

what is secondary school in uk

what is secondary school in uk

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How and when we tell you about a new year 7 secondary place offer
What to do when you have a new year 7 secondary school place offer and when you need to do it

The offer date for a secondary school place is 1st March 2021.
You must be resident in Bolton. If you live outside Bolton, you must apply through your home authority.

References:

http://www.goodschoolsguide.co.uk/international/uk/the-uk-school-system
http://www.bristol.gov.uk/schools-learning-early-years/secondary-admissions
http://www.bolton.gov.uk/admissions/secondary-school-places
http://www.goodschoolsguide.co.uk/choosing-a-school/the-british-system